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24 September 2011

Present Tense

Present Tense or people usually call it Simple Present Tense. Why in schools the teachers call it Simple Present Tense, because the sentence they use for explaining this tense in simple sentence. So, its name is just Present Tense. In English there are simple, compound, and complex sentences.

OK, back to the main topic discussing about Present Tense. There are two main functions or uses in Present Tense, they are Habitual Action and General truth.


Habitual Action:
Habitual Action or routine in other word, it shows activity people do every day as habit or routine. For showing it in sentence use: Adverb of Frequency such as Always, Usually, Often, Sometimes, Every day and so on.

Example:
I always have breakfast at 7 in the morning.
They usually go to work by bus.
She waters the flowers every day.


General truth:
General truth shows something happens in general or only at that moment happens. It also shows natural events.

Example:
The sun rises from the east
Fire is hot

Now, let’s start to understand the structure or pattern of present tense.

There two kinds of sentences, they are Verbal and Nominal. Each of them consists of Positive, Negative, and Interrogative sentences.

We start from Verbal. Verbal sentence itself is sentence which uses verb as the predicate of the sentence and doesn’t need tobe/be.


Here are the patterns: 

( + ) Positive:
Subject + Verb1 (s/es) + Object

They work at the Insurance Company.
We work at the Insurance Company.
You work at the Insurance Company.
I work at the Insurance Company.
She works at the Insurance Company.
He works at the Insurance Company.
It works at the Insurance Company.

Note:
- Add s/es to the verb1 if the subjects are she, he, it (The third person singular)
- The add of s/es to the verb doesn’t change the meaning in Indonesia. So the meaning the same like verb1.
- Verb for the Subjects They, We, You, and I do not need s/es.

The rules of the add of s/es to the verb in present tense if the subject in the third person singular form:

1. If the verbs ending in s, sh, ch, x, and o add es
Kiss – Kisses
Brush – Brushes
Watch – Watches
Fix – Fixes
Go – Goes

2. If the verbs ending in y, there are two rules.
a. Verbs ending in y but preceded by consonant, so change y becomes i then add es.
Study – Studies
Cry – Cries
Try – Tries

b. Verbs ending in y but preceded by vowel, so straightly add s.
Play – Plays
Stay – Stays
Say – Says

3. Besides those two rules above all verbs add s.
Write – Writes
Work – Works
Type – Types
See – Sees
Open – Opens

( - ) Negative:
Subject + do not/does not + Verb1 + Object

They do not work at the Insurance Company.
We do not work at the Insurance Company.
You do not work at the Insurance Company.
I do not work at the Insurance Company.
She does not work at the Insurance Company.
He does not work at the Insurance Company.
It does not work at the Insurance Company.

Note:
- For changing the positive sentence into negative form just add do not or does not after the subjects.
- If the subjects They, We, You, and I. Add do not after the subjects, but
- If the subjects She, He, and It. Add does not after the subjects.
- And the Verb after do not/does not must be Verb1 without s/es.

( ? ) Interrogative:
Do/Does + Subject + Verb1 + Object?

Do they work at the Insurance Company?
Do we work at the Insurance Company?
Do you work at the Insurance Company?
Do i work at the Insurance Company?
Does she work at the Insurance Company?
Does he work at the Insurance Company?
Does it work at the Insurance Company?

Note:
- For Verbal form add Do/Does before the Subjects and Do/Does means “Apakah” in Indonesia.
- Add Do before the subjects They, We, You, and I.
- Add Does before the subjects She, He, and It.
- The verb after the subjects must be Verb1.


Nominal Sentence is formed by adding tobe/be (is, are, am) after the subject if they are followed by Adjective, Noun, Adverb (Object of Complement) and no Verb after the subjects.

Is for She, He, It
Are for They, We, You
Am for I


Pattern:
( + ) Positive
Subject + be1 (is, are, am) + Object of Complement.

They are pilots.
We are pilots.
You are a pilot.
She is a pilot.
He is a pilot.
It is a pilot.
I am a pilot.

Note:
- Because the subjects are followed by Pilot (Noun), so we must add be1 (is, are, am) and if followed by Adjective and adverb as well.
- Be1 (is, are, am) sometimes meaningless if they are followed by adjective, but if they are followed by noun be1 mean “adalah” and if followed by adverb of place, they mean “ada” in Indonesian.

( - ) Negative
Subject + be1 (is, are, am) + not + Object of Complement.

They are not pilots.
We are not pilots.
You are not a pilot.
She is not a pilot.
He is not a pilot.
It is not a pilot.
I am not a pilot.

Note:
- For Nominal just add not after be1, if they are changed into negative sentence.

( ? ) Interrogative
Be1 (is, are, am) + Subject + Object of Complement?

Are they pilots?
Are we pilots?
Are you a pilot?
Is she a pilot?
Is he a pilot?
Is it a pilot?
Am I a pilot?

Note:
- If we change into interrogative just move be1 in front of the subjects and they mean “Apakah” and the answer can be Yes/No.

OK, That’s all the explanation of Present tense in general. May it’s useful. Thank you.

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